Oral Lichen Planus: An Overview

Authors

  • Benoit M. Cyrenne, MD Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON Toronto Dermatology Centre, Toronto, ON

Abstract

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an inflammatory disorder of the oral mucosa with a prevalence of 0.5% to 2.2% among adults. Disease onset tends to occur between the ages of 30 to 60 years and is observed more frequently among females than males. In contrast to the cutaneous lesions of lichen planus, OLP is often chronic and patients are plagued with relapses and remissions. OLP also often causes substantial morbidity, as it is considered to be a precancerous lesion owing to its associations with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Rates at which OLP undergoes malignant transformation range from 0.4% to 1.4%, and these rates are highest for the atrophic and ulcerative clinical subtypes of OLP.

Author Biography

Benoit M. Cyrenne, MD, Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON Toronto Dermatology Centre, Toronto, ON

Dr. Benoit Cyrenne completed his medical school at Yale University in 2018, graduating cum laude. He then completed residency training at the University of Toronto where he was named Co-Chief Resident in his final year. Following graduation, he joined the faculty in the Division of Dermatology as a Clinician-Teacher at Women’s College Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. His clinical and research interests lie in auto-inflammatory dermatoses, severe cutaneous adverse reactions to medications and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. 

References

González-Ruiz L, Ayén Á, Lenouvel D, et al. Worldwide prevalence of oral lichen planus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Dis. 2021;27(4):813-828. doi:10.1111/odi.13323

Cheng YS, Gould A, Kurago Z, Fantasia J, Muller S. Diagnosis of oral lichen planus: a position paper of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;122(3):332-354. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2016.05.004

Sugerman PB, Savage NW, Walsh LJ, Zhao ZZ, Zhou XJ, Khan A, et al. The pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2002;13(4):350-365. doi:10.1177/154411130201300405

Eisen D. The clinical manifestations and treatment of oral lichen planus. Dermatol Clin. 2003;21(1):79-89. doi:10.1016/s0733-8635(02)00067-0

Alrashdan MS, Cirillo N, McCullough M. Oral lichen planus: a literature review and update. Arch Dermatol Res. 2016;308(8):539-551. doi:10.1007/s00403-016-1667-2

Olson MA, Rogers RS, 3rd, Bruce AJ. Oral lichen planus. Clin Dermatol. 2016;34(4):495-504. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2016.02.023

Sandhu S, Klein BA, Al-Hadlaq M, Chirravur P, Bajonaid A, Xu Y, et al. Oral lichen planus: comparative efficacy and treatment costs-a systematic review. BMC Oral Health. 2022;22(1):161. doi:10.1186/s12903-022-02168-4

Boorghani M, Gholizadeh N, Taghavi Zenouz A, Vatankhah M, Mehdipour M. Oral lichen planus: clinical features, etiology, treatment and management; a review of literature. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2010;4(1):3-9. doi:10.5681/joddd.2010.002

Landells FM, Goudie S, McGrath J, Tibbo J, Landells ID. Successful treatment of erosive lichen planus with Upadacitinib complicated by oral squamous cell carcinoma. SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2023;11:2050313x231213144. doi:10.1177/2050313x231213144

Kim-Lim P, Thomas C. Crushed apremilast for the treatment of oral lichen planus. JAAD Case Rep. 2023;37:114-115. doi:10.1016/j.jdcr.2023.05.013

Rad M, Hashemipoor MA, Mojtahedi A, Zarei MR, Chamani G, Kakoei S, et al. Correlation between clinical and histopathologic diagnoses of oral lichen planus based on modified WHO diagnostic criteria. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107(6):796-800. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.02.020

Jolehar M, Mohseni R, Farhadi S. Correlation between WHO and Modified WHO Classification Systems in the histopathologic diagnosis of oral lichen planus using intraobserver and interobserver variability. Int J Prev Med. 2021;12:126. doi:10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_566_18

Platais C, Lalagianni N, Momen S, Ormond M, McParland H, Setterfield J. Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in oral lichen planus: a retrospective review. Br J Dermatol. 2023;188(4):557-558. doi:10.1093/bjd/ljac113

Carbone M, Goss E, Carrozzo M, Castellano S, Conrotto D, Broccoletti R, et al. Systemic and topical corticosteroid treatment of oral lichen planus: a comparative study with long-term follow-up. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003;32(6):323-329. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0714.2003.00173.x

Chamani G, Rad M, Zarei MR, Lotfi S, Sadeghi M, Ahmadi Z. Efficacy of tacrolimus and clobetasol in the treatment of oral lichen planus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54(9):996-1004. doi:10.1111/ijd.12925

Louisy A, Humbert E, Samimi M. Oral lichen planus: an update on diagnosis and management. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2024;25(1):35-53. doi:10.1007/s40257-023-00814-3

Saeed T, Firdous S, Malik SI, Aamir M, Ishaq Y, Riaz N. Comparison of low dose oral methotrexate vs systemic corticosteroids for treatment of oral lichen planus. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2021.

Verma KK, Mittal R, Manchanda Y. Azathioprine for the treatment of severe erosive oral and generalized lichen planus. Acta Derm Venereol. 2001;81(5):378-379. doi:10.1080/000155501317140197

Torti DC, Jorizzo JL, McCarty MA. Oral lichen planus: a case series with emphasis on therapy. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143(4):511-515. doi:10.1001/archderm.143.4.511

Vinay K, Kumar S, Dev A, Cazzaniga S, Borradori L, Thakur V, et al. Oral acitretin plus topical triamcinolone vs topical triamcinolone monotherapy in patients with symptomatic oral lichen planus: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Dermatol. 2024;160(1):80-87. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2023.4889

Harpenau LA, Plemons JM, Rees TD. Effectiveness of a low dose of cyclosporine in the management of patients with oral erosive lichen planus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1995;80(2):161-167. doi:10.1016/s1079-2104(05)80195-7

Yang H, Wu Y, Ma H, Jiang L, Zeng X, Dan H, et al. Possible alternative therapies for oral lichen planus cases refractory to steroid therapies. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;121(5):496-509. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2016.02.002

Didona D, Caposiena Caro RD, Sequeira Santos AM, Solimani F, Hertl M. Therapeutic strategies for oral lichen planus: state of the art and new insights. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022;9:997190. doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.997190

Solimani F, Pollmann R, Schmidt T, Schmidt A, Zheng X, Savai R, et al. Therapeutic Targeting of Th17/Tc17 cells leads to clinical improvement of lichen planus. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1808. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.01808

Passeron T, Reinhardt M, Ehst B, Weiss J, Sluzevich J, Sticherling M, et al. Secukinumab in adult patients with lichen planus: efficacy and safety results from the randomised, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept PRELUDE study. Br J Dermatol. 2024. doi:10.1093/bjd/ljae181

Lavanya N, Jayanthi P, Rao UK, Ranganathan K. Oral lichen planus: an update on pathogenesis and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2011;15(2):127-132. doi:10.4103/0973-029x.84474

Published

2024-06-26

How to Cite

1.
Cyrenne BM. Oral Lichen Planus: An Overview. Can Dermatol Today [Internet]. 2024 Jun. 26 [cited 2024 Jul. 15];5(2):10–14. Available from: https://canadiandermatologytoday.com/article/view/5-2-cyrenne

Issue

Section

Articles